WASTI SEBAGAI KRITIK IDEOLOGI
This article discusses the figure of Vashti, the banished queen in the book of Esther for her refusal to appear at a party hosted by King Ahasueros for his quests. Vashti is a marginal figure in the book and often misjudged as liberal, vain, and wicked. Yet, the writer argues that Vashty can be an inspiration for women and minority groups. Feminist view of Vashti, the writer argues, has opened the possibility to revise the negative view of Vashti. Traditional view, that exalts Esther, actually perpetuates patriarchal system. Instead of Esther, Vashti is more suitable to be a role-model because she dared to challenge the patriarchal system. She can also be a model for minorities for her courage to defend her integrity. Vashti’s example can inspire minorities to stand up for their identity and defend their integrity against unfair threats from the majority. This, for sure, requires enough courage to take risk. Nevertheless, this is not really an option because people who do not have courage to defend their integrity has lost their humanity.
Berlin, Adele. Esther. The JPS Bible Commentary. Philadelphia: The JPS Society, 2001.
Bush, Frederic W. Ruth, Esther. World Biblical Commentary. Vol. 9. Dallas: Word Books Publ. 1996.
Carruthers, Jo. Esther Through the Centuries. Maiden-Oxford-Victoria: Blackwell Publ, 2008.
Clines, David J.A. The Esther Scroll. JSOTSS 30. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1984.
Crawford, Sidnie White & Leonard J. Greenspoon, eds. The Book of Esther in Modern Research. London-New York: T&T Clark International, 2003.
Fishman, Sylvia Barack. “Reading Esther: Cultural Impact on Responses to Biblical Heroines.” Hadassah International Research Institute on Jewish Women at Brandeis Universit Working Paper, 2002.
Fox, Michael.Character and Ideology in the Book of Esther. Michigan, Cambridge: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publ, 2001.
Kleinman Edition. Esther Misdrash Rabbah. New York: Mesorah Publ. 2011.
Hubbard Jr, Robert L. “Vashti, Amestris and Esther 1,9.” Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, 2007.
Layton-Henry, Z. “Minorities.” Dalam Neil. J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, eds. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. Palo Alto-Berlin: Elsevier Ltd., 2001, 9894-9898.
Levenson, Jon D. Esther: A Commentary. Louisville-London: Westminster John Knox Press,1997.
Moore, Carey. Esther. The Anchor Bible, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1971.
Sasson, Jack M.”Esther.” Dalam The Literary Guide to the Bible, London: Fontana Press, 1989.
Schachter, Abby Wisse. “The Problem with Purim.” Commentary. The Jewish Theological Seminary. 2010. Diunduh pada tanggal 10 Maret 2012 dari situs: http://www.commentarymagazine.com/article/the-problem-with-purim/
Song, Angeline. “Heartless Bimbo or Subversive Role Model?: A Narrative (Self) Critical Reading of the Character of Esther.” Dialog: A Journal of Theology.Vol. 49. No. 1, Spring, 2010